Plumbing - about materials
Water systems of ancient times relied on gravity for the supply of water, using pipes or channels usually made of clay, lead, bamboo, wood, or stone. Hollowed wooden logs wrapped in steel banding were used for plumbing pipes, particularly water mains. Logs were used for water distribution in England close to 500 years ago. US cities began using hollowed logs in the late 1700s through the 1800s.8 Today, most plumbing supply pipe is made out of steel, copper, and plastic; most waste (also known as "soil")11 out of steel, copper, plastic, and cast iron.11
The straight sections of plumbing systems are called "pipes" or "tubes". A pipe is typically formed via casting or welding, whereas a tube is made through extrusion. Pipe normally has thicker walls and may be threaded or welded, while tubing is thinner-walled and requires special joining techniques such as brazing, compression fitting, crimping, or for plastics, solvent welding. These joining techniques are discussed in more detail in the piping and plumbing fittings article.
Valuation of hydraulic damage caused in the apartment
A very common problem faced by owners of apartments and houses are damages caused by various hydraulic failure. The cause of such failures in the apartments are leaking hose from the washing machine or cracked seals in taps or faulty cam. For similar accidents could occur in homes where often there are also problems associated with the lack of patency in the sewer pipes. Sometimes it happens that the hydraulic failures give rise to really serious damages mainly related to flooding different rooms. A precise measurement of the damage will plan all the necessary repairs and their efficient execution. Thus, you can also select the appropriate plumbing materials and do the whole job at a reasonable price.
Plastic pipes - some facts
Plastic pipework is used for the conveyance of drinking water, waste water, chemicals, heating fluid and cooling fluids, foodstuffs, ultra-pure liquids, slurries, gases, compressed air and vacuum system applications.
Plastic pipe systems fulfil a wide variety of service requirements. Product standards for plastics pipe systems are prepared within the standards committee known as CEN/TC155. These requirements are precisely described in a complete set of European Product Standards for each application alongside their specific characteristics.
Conveyance of drinking water: Hygienic requirements
Conveyance of gas: Highest Safety requirements
Plastic pipes for radiant heating and floor heating: Temperature resistance over decades
Sewer applications: High chemical resistance.
Plastic pipes are perfectly capable of fulfilling the specific requirement for each application. They do so with a high level of performance over a long lifetime and with reliability and safety.
The key factor for success is achieved by maintaining consistently high quality levels. For plastic pipe products, these levels are closely defined by the different standards.